Die Satzglieder und ihre Darstellung in der Grammatik (German Edition)

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Deictic procedures are indicative in meaning. Deixis Deictic or indexical expressions refer to the extralinguistic reality and acquire their meaning only with reference to the speech situation in which they are uttered. Examples of deictic expressions are personal pronouns I, you, etc. Disclaimer Reservations or disclaimers weaken speech contributions. They may relate to differing units of communication. Discourse representation This is a term elaborated in the course of historical discourse studies of post-war anti-Semitism Projektteam , Wodak et al.

This may happen in a number of very different ways: for example in direct or indirect speech. Discourse representations are typical of media texts. Evocations in newspaper articles, for instance, can stimulate associations with other text types such as fairy tales or detective stories. Exothesis In functional pragmatics this refers to the verbalization of some mental element such as, for instance, a sign of incomprehension.

Chomskyan generative grammars are tested by their capacity to generate a set of particular sentences and by the coincidental generation of new sentences. Grammatical competence means the cognitive ability of speakers to produce structurally correct or acceptable see acceptability sentences see also communicative competence. Hermeneutics This is the art of explaining cultural manifestations, particularly texts, which should ensure the general validity and adequacy of the interpretations and processes of comprehension.

Here, in contrast to the causal explanations of the natural sciences, it is a question of grasping and producing meaning relations. Human behaviour is always taken to be meaningful. An important element is the hermeneutic circle: the meaning of one part can only be understood in the context of the whole, but this in turn is only accessible from its component parts. Heuristic Greek heurisko — find. This is a collective term for various search and discovery techniques, or for the study of these procedures.

Grammatiken im Vergleich

Heuristic procedures permit the acquisition of knowledge by systematic discovery, in which, of course, unlike algorithmic procedures there is no guarantee of any solution. Heuristic procedures, such as experiments in reasoning or incrementalism, normally make use of so-called heuristic principles, such as analogy, abstraction and the set-up of aspiration levels.

Heuristic procedures, rules and instruments are used in methods of text analysis to discover new variables and to generate hypotheses. Induction Latin inducere — to draw or lead; inductivus — suitable as precondition.


Inductive conclusions proceed from individual cases to a generalization. One derives general pronouncements from individual observations, proceeds from data and arrives at hypotheses. For example, it is determined in the course of a study that, in a conference, contributions are more often adopted if they contain pictorial expressions. It is then concluded that the prominence of contributions is substantially influenced by the choice of memorable keywords.

Such generalizing conclusions are susceptible to error. In a particular case the conclusion could, for instance, be influenced by the fact that other considerations such as the position of the speakers, the length of contributions, sympathy with the audience, etc. Inductive conclusions belong to the permanent repertoire of research techniques, provided the investigator proceeds from samples to the total population. Text analyses follow the inductive principle when general categories are distilled from [Page ] transcripts.

One example of this is the open coding of the grounded theory. See abduction, deduction.

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Inference The statistics of inference are concerned with drawing conclusions for some population from the results of a sample. Conclusions of this kind are only drawn when a sample is representative of an entire population about whom statements may or should be made on the basis of sample results.

Isotopy The concept of isotopy is central to the structural semantics of Algirdas J. Greimas For him the concept refers to the cluster of redundant semantic categories which underlie discourse. Examples are the isotopy of space and time by means of which the environment of an action and movement are characterized along the time axis.

Isotopies indicate iterativity in a syntagmatic chain of classemes and guarantee the homogeneity of the discourse utterance. The concept was borrowed from chemistry. It is formed through the transference of some word to a counterfactual meaning. The term metaphorical lexeme refers to individual words which form metaphors.

Synonyms and antonyms of Aktant in the German dictionary of synonyms

Modality This is a semantic-pragmatic category. It indicates the orientation of a speaker to an utterance. Multi-stage sample This denotes a multiple random sample at different hierarchical levels within a population. If this procedure is selected in preference to a pure random sample, it is normally for economic reasons. For example, one could take a random sample from all the states of the USA. From this sample a number of cities would be selected. A random sample of all the newspapers appearing in those cities would then be taken and, finally, from these newspapers, a random sample of articles would be taken for analysis.

The sampling error increases according to the number of stages, but this may be countered by combining this procedure with a stratified sample. Norm respect This refers to the adherence to generally applicable and binding norms. Phonology This linguistic sub-discipline investigates the sound system of a given language. Phonology proceeds from the smallest elements of the language that distinguish meaning, the phonemes.

The research emphases are different in the various schools of phonology, such as functional phonology Trubetzkoy and the Prague School , generative phonology Chomsky , or natural phonology Dressler. Predication This is the process of attributing or denying to the subject of a sentence things, persons or events the properties or modes of behaviour which are expressed in the predicate. The discourse-historical method examines predication, like assertion, as the explicit attribution of properties and modes of behaviour with regard to the categorization and typification of groups.

This technique is rather controversial but frequently used in public opinion surveys. It predetermines percentages of particular categories or combinations of features quotas and uses these to control the selection of the subjects of study. There are two preconditions: first, the distribution of the predetermined variables over the whole population must be known; and secondly, the variables must be relevant to the research questions. The investigation is then representative for no more than those predetermined variables.

Random sample A pure random sample requires the availability of a list which indicates all the elements of a total population. Only on this basis for example by the use of random numbers can a purely random selection of units of investigation be made. Since it is very unlikely that all the elements of a population can be identified and even where they can, the researcher rarely has access to the relevant documents , pure random samples are very rare. Linguistic investigations which meet all the necessary criteria are almost never encountered.

Reliability In the classical theory of testing, reliability is one of the central criteria used to indicate the extent to which the results of some measurement or test may be trusted. In essence the requirement that a measurement should show the highest possible degree of reliability conveys the idea that the procedure used should measure what it is intended to measure as accurately and constantly as possible, and in a way which may be replicated by other investigators.

For instance, in content analysis the measurement of agreement between different coders is often taken as a measure of reliability. Quantitative research has developed a range of checking procedures which often, however, cannot be used in their original form in interpretative research. The reliability of some part of a questionnaire or a test is therefore assessed by repeated application of the test test-retest method or by comparing the results of some other equally valid procedure parallel test.

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A high degree of reliability is seen as a necessary but not, in itself, sufficient condition for validity. See validity.


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Sample This denotes a set of objects of investigation e. A sample must be representative if the results achieved are to be transferable to the whole, that is to say, if conclusions are to be drawn about the facts in question in the relevant population. It arises through the making of a random sample. Whorf is that a language functions not only as an instrument for the description of experience but also, and more significantly, as a means of defining experience for speakers of that language.

In this sense language determines, on the basis of its formal completeness and the unconscious projection of its implicit expectations, the possibilities and the limitations of our experience. Semantics This term is adopted from Charles W. Morris who used semantics to refer to that sub-discipline of semiotics which concerns itself with the relationship between signs and objects. In general terms, and leaving aside the specific differences between the various sub-types of linguistic semantics such as lexical, sentence or text semantics and the different approaches such as structural, generative or interpretative semantics, or stereotypic, instructional and referential semantics , we may describe semantics as the theory and practice of meaning analysis.

Semiotics Modern semiotics, or the theory of signs, derives from the work of Charles S. Pierce, Charles W. Morris and Ferdinand de Saussure. It is concerned with the use of signs, or semiosis. It consists of three sub-disciplines: semantics for the relationship between signs and objects , pragmatics for the relationship of sign and interpreter to the subject of investigation and syntax for the formal relation of signs to each other.

Speech act According to Searle speech acts are the basic units of human communication. In Searle's extended definition they consist of locutions the articulation of linguistic elements , propositions formulations of the content of an utterance and illocutions, which are the actions performed by speech acts.

Various typologies for classifying illocutions have been developed by Austin , Searle and Wunderlich To characterize the effect which a speech act has on the listener, the term perlocution Austin may be added to these three units. Different orientations in speech act theory Austin , Searle [Page ] , Wunderlich distinguish between the varying functions of speech acts in different ways. A communicative event is defined by a common general goal, a common general theme, and common participants who normally use the same level of language in a common setting and follow the same rules of interaction Saville-Troike Hymes 24f.

Stratified sample By stratifying a sample it is possible to reduce the extent of sampling error. The population is divided, according to variables relevant to the investigation, into a number of sub-groups from which random samples can be taken.

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  • These samples are proportional to the distribution of the variables in the total population. One precondition of this procedure is that the investigator knows the characteristics of the population, since only then can he or she classify it according to categories which are relevant to the research. Superstructure In Marxist theory this term refers to the totality of political ideas, ideologies, social values and norms. For Marxist oriented research, or research showing partial Marxist inspiration, this means that any investigation of everyday circumstances must also take into account the superstructure of the relevant historical situation or must, in its interpretation, consider the different forms of social consciousness.

    Surface structure Surface structure refers to the immediately recognizable and easily accessible forms of texts. This means those structures which are regularly investigated in traditional modes of text analysis, that is such manifest phenomena as themes and linguistic realizations.